The Schulz Mammoth
An intensive 10-day excavation of the 38,000 year-old Schulz Mammoth Site, Sturgis, South Dakota was a joint project with the South Dakota Archaeological Research Center, Rapid City, South Dakota. Unfortunately we were unable to confirm that there is human association with this mammoth, although there is one flake that appears to be cultural, it could also be a geofact (a naturally broken piece of stone).
Experimental Bone Breakage
We began analysis of the cow limb bones that were broken experimentally by dynamic loading (impact) and static loading (steady pressure) to continue to test the hypothesis that notches created by these two processes can be differentiated. Our most recent analysis shows that a ratio of notch breadth to notch depth does demonstrate statistically significant differences in notch shape depending on whether they were made by impact percussion or static pressure. We are growing a data base of notch measurements from various species of Pleistocene and modern animals for comparison. Our preliminary research indicates that certain notch measurements represent signs of human technology.
CAPR will be represented at an exhibition booth at the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology April 15-19, 2015. Please stop by and see us. Several posters discussing CAPR research will be shown at the booth. We're interested in sharing your research ideas and projects.
Holen SR and Holen K. The mammoth steppe hypothesis:The middle Wisconsin (Oxygen Isotope Stage 3) peopling of North America. In: Graf EG, Ketron CV and Waters MR, editors. Paleoamerican odyssey. College Station: Texas A&M University, 2013; p.429-444.
Holen SR. Clovis lithic procurement, caching, and mobility in the Central Great Plains of North America. In Huckell BB and Kilby JD, editors. Clovis caches: Recent discoveries and new research. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2014; p. 177-200.
The Colorado Scientific Society has presented their Best Paper Award for 2014 to Steven and Kathleen Holen. Our presentation was a summary of CAPR research identifying evidence of early peopling of the Americas from archaeological sites and experimental bone modification. We are deeply honored by this recognition.